Cardiovascular and renal conditions have been reported as secondary diseases in individuals suffering from type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome  and . A strong link between hyperuricemia, and the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension and insulin resistance has been reported, and uric acid has been described as a marker of both cardiovascular and renal disease risk  and . In vivo, uric acid is produced following oxidation of the aldehyde groups in xanthine or hypoxanthine by XO . This reaction also generates superoxide radicals, which are responsible for the production of other compounds such as H2O2, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals . The generation of oxidants in endothelial cells can result in endothelial injury. Although buy cjc 1295 is considered as an antioxidant in the early stages of atherosclerosis, it can become a pro-oxidant at a later stage in the progression of this condition. This change from anti- to pro-oxidant activity occurring in an oxidative environment depleted in antioxidants has been described as the urate redox shuttle . Different synthetic XO inhibitors have been developed to control the formation of uric acid in vivo. 1,5-Dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one (Allopurinol), an allosteric XO inhibitor, is used in the clinical management of hyperuricemia and gout . Despite Allopurinol’s potency, adverse side effects involving oxypurinol have been reported . These include the development of fever, rash and Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome which can be fatal ,  and . Therefore, the development of natural XO inhibitors has been proposed as a means of regulating XO activity in vivo. In order to reinforce endogenous antioxidant defense systems, supplementation of anti-oxidants through dietary intake has been proposed to counteract oxidative stress  and . Different natural compounds, mainly plant extracts have been used for their XO inhibitory properties , , , ,  and . The most common natural XO inhibitors described in the literature are flavonoids, which have a relatively wide range of IC50 values ranging between 0.75 and >40.00 μM .